The ASHRAE Handbook is published in a series of four volumes, one of which is revised each year, ensuring that no volume is older than four years.
This TC is responsible for the following chapters in the Refrigeration Handbook:
REFRIGERATION: Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems
This chapter focuses on systems that use halocarbons (halogenated hydrocarbons) as refrigerants. The most commonly used halogen refrigerants are chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F).Halocarbon refrigerants are classified into four groups: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine; hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which consist of carbon, hydro-gen, chlorine, and fluorine; hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which contain carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine; and hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs),which are HFC refrigerants derived from an alkene (olefin; i.e., an unsaturated compound having at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond). Examples of these refrigerants can be found in Chapter 29 of the 2013 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals.
REFRIGERATION: Ammonia Refrigeration Systems
Ammonia is the refrigerant of choice for many industrial refrigeration systems. Custom-engineered ammonia (R-717) refrigeration systems often have design conditions that span a wide range of evaporating and condensing temperatures. Examples are (1) a food freezing plant operating from +50 to –50°F (10 to –45°C); (2) a candy storage requiring 60°F (15°C) db with precise humidity control; (3) a beef chill room at 28 to 30°F (–2 to –1°C) with high humidity; (4) a distribution warehouse requiring multiple temperatures for storing ice cream, frozen food, meat, and produce and for docks; and (5) a chemical process requiring multiple temperatures ranging from +60 to –60°F (15 to –50°C).
REFRIGERATION: System Practices for Carbon Dioxide Refrigerant
Carbon dioxide (R-744) is one of the naturally occurring compounds collectively known as “natural refrigerants.” It is nonflammable and nontoxic, with no known carcinogenic, mutagenic, or other toxic effects, and no dangerous products of combustion. Using carbon dioxide in refrigerating systems can be considered a form of carbon capture, with a potential beneficial effect on climate change. It has no adverse local environmental effects. In recent years, CO2 has once again become a refrigerant of great interest. However, high-pressure CO2 systems (e.g., 490.8 psia [3.4 MPa] at a saturation temperature of 30°F [–1°C], or 969.6 psia at 80°F [6.7 MPa at 26.7°C]) present some challenges for containment and safety.
REFRIGERATION: Insulation Systems for Refrigerant Piping
This chapter is a guide to specifying insulation systems for refrigeration piping, fittings, and vessels operated at temperatures ranging from 35 to –100°F (2 to –70°C). It does not deal with HVAC systems or applications such as chilled-water systems. Refer to Chapters 23, 25, 26, and 27 in the 2013 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals for information about insulation and vapor barriers for these systems.
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