Sound and Vibration
ASHRAE Technical Committee 2.6

Scope of TC 2.6

TC 2.6 is concerned with the fundamental scientific and engineering principles of sound and vibration, particularly as applied to the design and performance of the built environment.



The ASHRAE Handbook is published in a series of four volumes, one of which is revised each year, ensuring that no volume is older than four years. The Handbook can be purchased at the ASHRAE Bookstore by clicking on this link.

The TC is responsible for the following chapter in the Fundamentals Volume:
The CD versions will include software and other files that cannot exist in the print version.

Sound & Vibration
If fundamental principles of sound and vibration control are applied in the design, installation, and use of HVAC&R systems, suitable levels of noise and vibration can be achieved with a high probability of user acceptance. This chapter introduces these fundamental principles, including characteristics of sound, basic definitions and terminology, human response to sound, acoustic design goals, and vibration isolation fundamentals. Chapter 48 of the 2011 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications and the references at the end of this chapter contain technical discussions, tables, and design examples helpful to HVAC designers.

The ASHRAE HVAC FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK may be purchased from the on-line bookstore by clicking on the highlighted text.

The TC is responsible for the following chapter in the HVAC Applications Volume

Noise and Vibration Control
This chapter provides basic sound and vibration principles and data needed by HVAC system designers. Many of the equations associated with sound and vibration control for HVAC may be found in Chapter 8 of the 2013 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals. Additional technical discussions along with detailed HVAC component and system design examples can be found in the references.

The ASHRAE HVAC APPLICATIONS HANDBOOK may be purchased from the on-line bookstore by clicking on the highlighted text.

Comment on the Handbook: ASHRAE welcomes your comments on the Handbook or a specific Handbook chapter.  To submit a comment about any aspect or part of the Handbook series, you can use the Handbook Comment Form.

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Technical committees develop and sponsor technical sessions at the winter and annual conferences. Information about their future technical program is discussed at each TC meeting and at the TC’s Program Subcommittee meeting.

ASHRAE publishes papers and transactions from presentations at its conference events. In addition, ASHRAE records most of the seminar sessions from its conferences on DVD. These DVDs are ideal for use at chapter meetings, in university courses, or company lunch and learns. Products available from the most recent conference may be found here.


UPCOMING MEETING: Indianapolis, 22-26 June 2024


1: Fundamentals and Applications

2: HVAC&R Systems and Equipment

3: Research Summit

4: Professional Development

5: Electrification: Possibilities and Pitfalls

6: Artificial Intelligence and the Built Environment

7: Building Life Cycle Assessment

8: Legislation, Standards, Codes, and Guidelines


Seminar 53: Rooftop Equipment: Support, Noise Control and Restraint

Wednesday, June 26th 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM EDT

Location: JW Marriott - Indianapolis, Grand Ballroom 9



2024 Chicago/Indianapolis

Lab to Ratings to Field (Eichelberger/Knight/Miller-Klein)

2023 Atlanta/Tampa

Acoustic Impacts of Designing for High Performance Building (Lilly/Eichelberger/Miller-Klein)

Duct Breakout Calculation Advances (Lilly)

2022 Las Vegas/Toronto

Select/Size HVAC Fans for Optimum Acoustical Performance (Lilly/Bausch/Ganesh)

2021 "Chicago"/"Phoenix"

Elevator Noise, Vibration, Energy Efficiency (Boldt/Miller-Klein)

Noise/Vibration Commissioning/Remediation (Bauch/Miller-Klein)

Sound/Vibration Issues w/Mission Critical Facilities (Bauch/LaForgia/Miller-Klein)

2020 Orlando/"Austin"

Vibration Isolation Advances (Golden, Scarlett, Meeuwsen)

Beware These Common Concerns in Multi-Family Buildings (Miller-Klein, Dong/Rawlins, Golden)

When Is “Quiet” Quiet Enough (Hunt: Marks, Kollevoll)

HT: ANSI S12:60 / FGI vs 189.1 (Miller-Klein)

HT: Speech Privacy (Koukounian)

HT: Pandemic effects on acoustics

2019 Atlanta/Kansas City

RP-1408 Ductwork research (Herrin, Schwob)

VRF Systems (Lilly, Miller-Klein, Wowk)

Noise/Vib Equipment Selection (Boldt, Eichelberger, Wowk)

HT: IBC updates (Schmeida)

HT: Basecamp (Miller-Klein)

Commissioning (Miller-Klein, Swan)

Chilled Beams (Searle, Peterman, M-K)

Blocked Impedance (Meeuwsen)

2018 Chicago/Houston

Impacts of Safeguarding Buildings/HVAC Systems (Miller Klein)

HT: User Manual 189.1 Acoustic Control, Next Steps

HT: LNG Facilities (R Keith)

2017 Las Vegas/Long Beach

Acoustic Performance Standards for Residential Buildings (Miller-Klein)

HT: Mech Equipment Vibration & Structural Interaction (Wowk)

2016 Orlando/St Louis

TP: Simulating Noise Attenuation in Ducts (Kuehn)

Acoustics in Multi-Family Residential Environments (Papadimos)

Avoiding Pitfalls Integrating Seismic and Sound Control (w/2.07)

HT: Algorithms for HVAC Acoustics

2015 Chicago/Atlanta

System Effects from Inlet of Centrifugal/Plenum Fans (w/5.1,5.9)

Acoustic Mitigation for Lightweight Roof Assemblies (Miller-Klein)

Green Building Acoustics (Miller-Klein)

HT: Condensing Units on Lightweight Roof (Lilly)

HT: Sound measurement in rooms (Lilly)

2014 New York/Seattle

Equipment: Hydronic Systems (Miller-Klein)

Basics: Environmental Noise Impact & Mitigation (Wang)

2013 Dallas/Denver

Basics of HVAC Noise Control (Miller-Klein)

Numerical Methods for Noise/Vibration Simulation (Eichelberger)

HT: ASHRAE 189.1

2012 Chicago/San Antonio

Vibration Induced Noise & Mech Equipment Isolation (Marks)

HT: BIM and Acoustics

Impacts of Poor Aerodynamic HVAC Conditions (Schaffer)

New Acoustical Criteria and Measuring Methods (Peterman)

Review of Updated AHRI Standards (Papadimos)

2011 Las Vegas/Montreal

Recent Research: Healthcare Facility Acoustics (Papadimos)

Acoustic Codes/Standards/Guidelines (Muehleisen)

HT: Classroom Physical Environment Effects on Learning (Reynolds)

Fan Array Efficiency/Performance (Raychaudhuri)

Forum: Incorporating Acoustics into BIM (Peterman/Mitchell)

2010 Orlando/Albuquerque

Acoustics in High Performance Building (Peterman)

Noise & Mech System Design Process (Lilkendey)

Multiple Plenum Fans in an Array (Ganesh)

HT: Criteria (Paige) / Lined Duct End Reflection (Lilly)

HT: Int’l GBC (Marks) / Terminal Unit Tests/ASHRAE 130 (Peterman)

Classroom HVAC Noise Control (Lilkendey)

Unique Case Studies (Papadimos)

TP: Effects of Mech System Noise on Human Perf./Perception (Roy)

Sustainability and Our Environment (Ronsse)

2009 Chicago/Louisville

Staff Performance/Patient Welfare in Healthcare Facilities (Wang)

2008 New York/Salt Lake City

TP: End Reflection (RP-1314) (Eichelberger)

TP: Fan System Effects (RP-1219) (Eichelberger)

2007 Dallas/Long Beach

Acoustics for Green Buildings (Roy)

Acoustic vs Seismic (Lama/Marks/Blazier)

Lab Noise Control (Johnson/Moiseev)

Publications Subcommittee

The Publications Subcommittee does not generate information directly. It collects information generated by sources, such as the Research Subcommittee, and packages it for distribution in various formats.
Subcommittee Responsibilities: Fundamentals chapter Applications chapter Copies of all publications as computer files Algorithms Book Special Publications Committee’s Electronic Archives Research Reports (in electronic form) Other material as deemed appropriate TC Web pages.


Technical Committees are responsible for identifying research topics, proposing research projects, selecting bidders, and monitoring research projects funded by ASHRAE. Information about their specific research program is discussed at each TC meeting and at the TC’s Research Subcommittee meeting.

There is an ASHRAE Research database that can be found at

The TC has the following ongoing research projects:

RP-1919, The Effects of Duct Size and Aspect Ratio on Flow Noise in Elbows                                                                                                                Principal Investigator: Brandon Cudequest, Threshold Acoustics

RP-1852, Develop performance metric, criteria, and process to measure and predict speech privacy in High Performance Buildings 
Principal Investigator: Roderick Mackenzie, Soft dB Inc. 

Proposed Research Projects

RP-1882, Procedure for Estimating Occupied Space Sound Levels in the Application of UFAD Air Terminals and Air Outlets                                  Principal Investigator: Nick Searle

List of Past Research Projects

This list includes TC 2.6 research projects and projects sponsored by other Technical Committees that relate to sound and vibration. Most project final reports are available on the ASHRAE web site. Those reports that are not available are noted below.

RP-11, Studies of Noise in Liquid Flow Systems
Sponsored by TC 2.6
Principal Investigator: W. L. Rogers, University of Arizona
Publish Date: No final report available. Paper: #1821 Vol.69 Pt.1 (1963)    

RP-37, Noise Generation in Ducts 
Principal Investigator: Ingard, Uno, Industrial Acoustics
Publish Date: August 1965

RP-53, Noise Control in Liquid Duct System by Active Elements
Principal Investigator: W. L. Williams, University of Arizona
Final report is not available. Reference paper #2292 Vol. 79 Pt. 2 (1973)

RP-58, Development of an Anechoic Termination for Fan Noise Measurements
Sponsored by TC 5.1, Fans
Principal Investigator: S. Holgersson, BAHCO, Sweden
Final report is not available. Reference paper #2069 Vol. 74 Pt. 2 (1968)

RP-103, Predicting the Sound Power of Noise in Reverberant Spaces Using 1/5 Scale Flexible Model Chambers 
Principal Investigator: Tichy, J., Penn. State University
Publish Date: June 1972           

RP-126, A Study to Update Indoor Sound Criteria for Air Conditioning Systems 
Principal Investigator: Goodfriend, L.S., L.S. Goodfriend & Associates
Publish Date: March 1075

RP-196, A Study to Determine Attenuation of Sound in Lined and Unlined Ductwork 
Principal Investigator: Ver, I. , Bolt Beranek and Newnan, Inc.
Publish Date: September 1977

RP-264, In-Duct Measurement of Fan Sound Power Using ASHRAE Standard 68-78 
Principal Investigator: Crocker, M., Purdue University
Publish Date: January 1982   

RP-265, A Study to Determine the Noise Generation and Noise Attenuation of Lined and Unlined Duct Fittings 
Principal Investigator: Ver, I., Bolt Beranek & Newman, Inc.
Publish Date: June 1983

RP-318, Low Frequency Noise Radiation from Air Conditioning Ducts 
Principal Investigator: Cummings, A., University of Missouri
Publish Date: December 1983

RP-319, Prediction of Sound Transmission Through Duct Walls; Breakout and Pickup 
Principal Investigator: Ver, I., Bolt Beranek & Newman, Inc.
Publish Date: June 1983

RP-339, Improved Reliability of the Relation Between Sound Power Level and Sound Pressure Level 
Principal Investigator: Shultz, T., Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.
Publish Date: March 1983

RP-477, Development of a Method to Predict Vibration Response on Propeller Fans Under Actual Operating Conditions
Sponsored by TC 5.1, Fans
Principal Investigator: D. Reynolds, University of Nevada Las Vegas
Publish Date: May 1988

RP-478, Determining the Physical Properties of Fibrous Duct Lining Materials and Their Sound Attenuation Properties 
Principal Investigator: Kuntz, H.L., Hoover, Keith &
Publish Date: December 1986

RP-526, Separate Application Guide on HVAC Acoustics
Principal Investigator: P. Veneklasen, Paul S. Veneklasen & Associates
Publish Date: 1988
Final report is not available. Final product is Special Publication #90340 & 90341

RP-556, Algorithms for HVAC Acoustics
Principal Investigator: D. Reynolds, DDR Inc.
Publish Date: 1989
Final report is not available. Final product is Special Publication #90334 & 30335

RP-624, Laboratory Methods of Testing for Rating Low Frequency Sound Emission of Air Conditioning 
Principal Investigator: Chu, W.T. , National Research Council of Canada
Publish Date: December 1986

RP-685, Test and Analysis Methods for Resolving Fan/Motor Vibration Problems in Air Conditioning Units
Principal Investigator: D. Reynolds, University of Nevada Las Vegas
Publish Date: April 1997

RP-714, Determination of the Relationship Between Low-Frequency HVAC Noise and Comfort in Occupied Spaces 
Principal Investigator: Broner, Norman, Vipac Engineering & Sct.
Publish Date: April 1994

RP-755, Determination of Effect of Ceiling Systems and Plenum Sound Power Radiated Through Ceilings by Terminal Units 
Principal Investigator: Warnock, A.C.C., National Research Council Canada
Publish Date: May 1997    

RP-786, Guide to the Proper Application and Use of Manufacturer's Sound Data on HVAC Equipment
Sponsored by TC 2.6
Principal Investigator: Rich Peppin, Scantech
Publish Date: 1997. Special publication #90393

RP-812, A Practical Guide to Seismic Restraint
Principal Investigator: James Tauby, Mason Industries
Publish Date: 1999
Final report is not available. Final product is Special Publication #90416

RP-1010, Inlet Installation Effects, Air and Sound, on Vaneaxial Fans
Sponsored by TC 5.1 Fans
Principal Investigator: William S. Swim, Tennessee Technological University
Publish Date: December 2003

RP-1223, Inlet Installation Effects on Propeller Fans, Air and Sound
Sponsored by TC 5.1 Fans
Principal Investigator: Corinne Darvennes, Tennessee Technological University
Publish Date: December 2003

RP-879, Determination of the Relationship Between Low-Frequency HVAC Noise and Comfort in Occupied Spaces Psycho-Acoustic Phrase
Principal Investigator: Dr Norman Broner
Publish Date: April 2004

RP-1218, Numerical Methods for Low-Frequency HVAC Noise Applications
Principal Investigator: Dr David W. Herrin, University of Kentucky
Publish Date: January 2006

RP-1076, Diagnostic Test and Analytical Methods for Resolving Fan/Motor Vibration Problems in Air-Conditioning Units
Principal Investigator: Douglas Reynolds, University of Nevada Las Vegas
Publish Date: November 2006

RP-1219, Duct Rumble Noise Resulting from Aerodynamic System Effects at the Discharge of a Centrifugal Fan
Principal Investigator: Dr. J Adin Mann III, Iowa State University
Publish Date: November 2007

RP-1314, Reflection of Airborne Noise at Duct Terminations 

Principal Investigator: Dr. Kenneth Cunefare, Georgia Institute of Technology
Publish Date: 2007

RP-1272, Inlet Installation Effects on Forward Curved Centrifugal Fans, Air Performance and Sound
Sponsored by TC 5.1, Fans
Principal Investigator: Mark Stevens, AMCA
Publish Date: 2008

RP-1026, The Aero-Acoustic Properties of Common HVAC Plena 
Principal Investigator: Emanuel Mouratidis, Vibro-Acoustics
Publish Date: March 2010

RP-1322, Productivity and Perception Based Evaluation of Indoor Noise Criteria 
Principal Investigator: Lily Wang, PhD, University of Nebraska
Publish Date: January 2013

RP-1517, Validation of Low-order Acoustic Model of Boilers and its Application for Diagnosing Combustion Driven Oscillations

Sponsored by TC 6.10
Principal Investigator: Dr. David W. Herrin, University of Kentucky.
Publish Date: 2013

RP-1272, Inlet and Discharge Installation Effects on Airfoil (AF) Centrifugal Plenum/Plug Fans for Air and Sound Performance
Sponsored by TC 5.1 Fans
Principal Investigator: Alain Guedel, CETIAT, and Mark Stevens, AMCA International
Publish Date: 2014

RP-1529, Full Frequency Numerical Modeling of Sound Transmission In and Radiation from Lined Ducts

Principal Investigator: Dr. David W. Herrin, University of Kentucky
Publish Date: March 2016 

RP-1408, Effect of Lining Length on Insertion Loss of Acoustical Duct Liner in Sheetmetal Ductwork
Principal Investigator: Dr. D. Reynolds, University of Nevada Las Vegas
Publish Date: March 2018 

RP-1707, Annoyance Threshold of Tones in Noise as Related to Building Services Equipment

Principal Investigator: Patricia Davies

Publish Date: August 2022


ASHRAE writes standards for the purpose of establishing consensus for: 1) methods of test for use in commerce and 2) performance criteria for use as facilitators with which to guide the industry. ASHRAE publishes the following three types of voluntary consensus standards: Method of Measurement or Test (MOT), Standard Design and Standard Practice. ASHRAE does not write rating standards unless a suitable rating standard will not otherwise be available. ASHRAE is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and follows ANSI's requirements for due process and standards development. Standards may be purchased at the ASHRAE Bookstore.

TC 2.6 designates committee members to serve as liaisons to standards as needed.

TC 2.6 Standards Liaisons
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality     
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 68-1997 Laboratory method of testing to determine the sound power in a duct     
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 70-2006 Method of testing for rating the performance of air outlets and inlets     
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 130-2008 Method of testing for rating ducted air terminal units, Liaison Randy Zimmerman, Titus
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 171-2008 Method of test of seismic restraint devices for HVAC&R Equipment.     
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2011 Standard for the design of high-performance green buildings except low-rise residential buildings, Liaison Joe Bridger, Stewart Acoustical Consultants
ASHRAE Guideline 10-2011 Interactions affecting the achievement of acceptable indoor environments, Liaison Lily Wang, University of Nebraska – Lincoln

TC 2.6 also has liaisons to other organizations that produce standards regarding HVAC&R sound and vibration control.
The Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI), Liaison Dan Abbate, AHRI
Air Movement and Control Association International (AMCA), Liaison    Joe Brooks, AMCA International
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Liaison Ali Herfat, Emerson Climate Technologies
Acoustical Society of America (ASA), Liaison Lily Wang, University Of Nebraska – Lincoln
ASTM International, Liaison Richard Peppin, Engineers for Change
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Liaison Douglas Reynolds, University of Nevada – Las Vegas
Vibration Isolation and Seismic Control Manufacturers Association (VISCMA), Liaison Karl Peterman, Vibro-Acoustics

TC 2.6 is involved with the development of ASHRAE standards through participation on special project committees (SPC) and working groups (WG).
SPC 189: Design of High-Performance Green Buildings, Contact Joe Bridger, Stewart Acoustical Consultants
SPC 197: Method of Test for Passive Vibration Isolators, Contact Karl Peterman, Vibro-Acoustics
SPC 200: Method of Test for Chilled Beams, Contact Randy Zimmerman, Titus
ANSI WG 51: Sound Measurement in Rooms, Contact Jerry Lilly, JGL Acoustics

Other Activities

TIP: If MTG involvement add here otherwise leave blank.

Include other activities, such as MTG involvement, into this section.


ASHRAE Technical FAQs are provided as a service to ASHRAE members, users of ASHRAE publications, and the general public. While every effort has been made to ensure their accuracy and reliability, they are advisory and provided for informational purposes only, and in many cases represent only one person’s view. They are not intended and should not be relied on as an official statement of ASHRAE. Technical questions not addressed may be submitted to the ASHRAE Technical Services department at